What Is Vegan Leather Made Of – And Is It Sustainable?

What is vegan leather made of" is one of the questions we get asked most at Immaculate. The term 'vegan leather' encompasses a very wide range of materials, some of which are incredibly unsustainable (e.g. PVC), and many of which are among the most sustainable materials out there. So what to avoid, and what to choose instead?

By Annick Ireland, Founder of Immaculate Vegan

Many of us are now aware of just how damaging animal leather is – to people, to animals and to the environment. A massive study called Pulse of the Fashion Industry (published by Global Fashion Agenda and The Boston Consulting Group) looked at the environmental damage caused by a large range of materials commonly used in fashion, from cradle to grave, and found animal leather to have the worst environmental impact, much higher than plastic. But what is alternative 'vegan leather' actually made from – is vegan leather plastic, and is it really a more sustainable option?


The vegan leather to really avoid is PVC (polyvinyl chloride, or vinyl) which tends to be used in many cheap vegan leather options found in fast fashion brands. Known as the 'poison plastic', according to Greenpeace it is 'the most environmentally damaging plastic. The PVC lifecycle – its production, use, and disposal – results in the release of toxic, chlorine-based chemicals. These toxins are building up in the water, air and food chain. The result: severe health problems, including cancer, immune system damage, and hormone disruption. No one can escape contamination: Everyone, everywhere has measurable levels of chlorinated toxins in their bodies.'

Polyurethane (PU)

The most common material used in vegan leathers, this is a plastic polymer, derived from petroleum. It's often bonded with a fabric backing to make vegan leathers. It's much more breathable, flexible and lighter than the well-known PVC (vinyl) plastic, and – whilst PU production isn't entirely non-toxic –  it is a much greener alternative. Whereas PVC produces harmful dioxins and uses highly toxic chlorine, PU doesn't need the same chemical plasticizers, and does degrade over time. It's a great alternative to animal leather as it looks and feels very similar. Many of our brands who use PU vegan leather – including Allkind and Ashoka – manufacture in Europe, where there are also strict emission controls on PU production, making it even more sustainable.Allkind vegan leather boots

Vegetable-Based PU

Many brands are now experimenting with using vegetable-based PU, made from plant oils. This decreases many of the chemical hazards associated with making PU, and makes the PU more biodegradable. Good Guys Don't Wear Leather have introduced a zero CO2 emissions vegan leather in their footwear, made from polymers derived from natural renewable sources such as cereals and vegetable seeds; whilst Watson & Wolfe use a PU vegan leather made from over 50% zero carbon plant oils.


Pinatex is an amazing vegan leather developed by Ananas Anam and made from pineapple leaf fibres, a waste product of the pineapple industry, and provides pineapple farmers with an additional source of income, as well as creating a super-sustainable new leather-like material. Several of our brands are using Pinatex in their collections, including Hozen and LUXTRA. Check out our Pinatex Edit for more Pinatex shoes, bags and accessories.

Apple Leather

Apple skin leather is another amazing vegan leather made from a waste product, this time from apples grown for the food industry, from the region of Bolzano in northern Italy (one of the world’s largest apple-producing regions). The recovered apple skin and core waste is dried and reduced to a powder, and sent to a factory in Florence, where it's coagulated with PU and coated onto a cotton and polyester base. The resulting ethical leather contains a minimum of 50% apple fibre, and looks and feels a lot like real leather. Several of our brands have been real pioneers of apple skin leather products, including LUXTRA, Good Guys Don't Wear Leather and Sylven New York. Check out our Apple Leather Edit for more apple leather shoes, bags and accessories.

Cactus Leather

Cactus leather is a sustainable vegan leather made fromeaves from the cactus plant. Created on an organic plantation in Mexico, the cacti are cultivated without the use of herbicides or pesticides. There is no irrigation system for these plants; they are instead grown using only rainwater and earth minerals rich in the region where the ranch is located. Any organic cactus material not used is exported and sold to the food industry.

On the plantation, an agriculture team cuts the mature cactus leaves of each harvest, once every 6-8 months. The leaves are then dried in the sun for three days, avoiding extra energy usage while still achieving the proper level of humidity. Then, the raw material is processed into a vegan leather that is partially biodegradable with up to a 50% organic composition. The final textile is soft and flexible, yet durable, with a lifespan of up to 10 years. 

Our brands LUXTRA, Thalie Paris and Carmona Collection all use Cactus Leather in their beautiful, sustainable collections.

Cork Leather

Also known as cork skin, cork vegan leather is made from harvesting the bark of the cork oak tree, which can renew itself every nine years. Harvested raw cork barks are left to dry for about six months. They're then steamed and boiled to give flexibility, after which they're sliced and pressed into a natural leather. Cork leather is waterproof, stain resistant, easy to maintain and very light, so it's a great material for bags in particular. Svala use cork skin for several of their bags, whilst Murmali is a cork specialist, creating the most beautiful backpacks, clutches and crossbody bags from this sustainable material.

Grape Leather

Grape leather by VEGEA is a unique vegan leather made fromgrape skins from winemaking ( a waste product) added to plant oils and natural fibres from agriculture. These plant-based raw materials combine to form a bio-compound that is spread onto an organic cotton backing. No toxic solvents, heavy metals or dangerous substances are included in the process. 

The composition of grape leather is 78% eco-composite and 22% water-based PU (polyurethane), making it one of the vegan leathers made from the highest amount of plant-based materials. Using renewable resources, as opposed to fossil fuels, results in one of the most eco-sustainable and ethical vegan leathers available.

Grape leather is versatile, printable, strong and easy to work with. The manufacturing and final product have a low environmental impact and high social responsibilty. With the goal of finding substitutes to oil-based and animal-derived materials, along with the collaboration of Italian wineries, wasted grape skin, stalks and seeds are earning a new value. 


MulbTex is an innovative ethical leather made from the paper pulp of mulberry tree leaves, which are the staple food of silk worms. MulbTex bypasses the cruelty of killing the worms, and instead extracts the silk protein directly from the leaves. The mulberry leaf pulp is used to coat cotton canvas, and then glazed with tree sap to make it water resistant and weather-proof. This vegan leather has its own silky shine, and is as strong as silk, making it a great alternative to both animal leather and plastic. Gunas New York are using MulbTex in several of their designs, and their Moby bag is the world's first plant-based men's bag made from MulbTex.  

Micronappa and Microsuede

Both these ethical leathers are high quality micro-fibres made from ultra-fine polyester or nylon fibres. Micronappa is similar to nappa leather whilst Microsuede is similar to suede. Both fabrics are breathable, soft to touch, long-lasting, waterproof and easy to clean. Noah and Mireia Playa makes great use of both fabrics in their collections.

Recycled Plastics

Turning plastic waste into new high qulaity vegan materials is a growing trend, with several brands using recycled PU and other recycled plastics such as PET (made from plastic bottles) in place of virgin PU and polyester. These include Hemincuff and Hozen (over 90% of their 2020 collection is made from recycled materials). Plus many brands use recycled plastics for their linings, including Expressions NYC.

So if you want to be ahead of the fashion curve, and stand side by side with some of the most stylish and trend-setting people on the planet – ditch the animal leather and opt for the more progressive and sustainable vegan leathers that are out there. Which is what being Immaculate is all about.

Cover image by Kaila Katherine

If you love the idea of vegan leather, why not take a look at our vegan leather bags, vegan leather shoes, vegan leather boots, vegan leather trainers and vegan leather accessories.

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